21st March 2010
Wind Power and Electricity Markets in Denmark and Germany in 2009

Will the wind power profile be smoother when larger geographical areas than Denmark are considered?

Last year I analysed wind power and spot markets for electricity for the Renewable Energy Foundation. My work included the years 2006 to 2008. The analysis was extended by one of the four German transmissions system operators when an unexpected close relationship between spot prices in Denmark and Germany was detected.

Therefore data for all four German system operators has been downloaded for 2009 in addition to data for the two Danish control areas which are operated by Energinet.dk. The German system operators are: Transpower (former e.on Netz), Amprion (RWE), EnBW and 50Hertz (former Vattenfall Transmission). The Danish control areas are DKW (West Denmark) and DKE (East Denmark).

Some main conclusions are shown below. The reliability of the results depends on the quality of the data from the system operators' web sites.

See the full 2009 report.

Wind Power in 2009
* In 2009 the energy content of wind power in Denmark was 87.9% of the energy content for a normal year.
* The total production of wind energy in 2009 was 6.7 TWh in Denmark (19.4% of electricity consumption) and 37.7 TWh in Germany (6.9% of estimated consumption).
* The average capacity factors were 0.21 onshore and 0.37 offshore. The corresponding duration hours are 1820 hours onshore and 3343 hours offshore.
* The variation of wind power seems to be quite synchronized for the six control areas. This is particularly valid for periods with low wind power output.
- For the total wind power output for all six control areas the minimum hourly average in 2009 was 223 MW or about 1% of the maximum output.
- The minimum 24 hours average wind power output for all six areas was 348 MW or about 1½% of the maximum output.
* For Denmark and Germany together the wind energy output was 7.6% of the estimated electricity consumption.
Interconnectors in 2009
* The availability of the Danish interconnections is still unsatisfactory.
- The reasons are outages of transmission equipment and operational curtailments. This is particularly valid for transfers from Sweden to Denmark.
The Electricity markets in 2009
* In 2009 the spot prices were low and at the same level for Nord Pool Spot, for German EEX and for the two Danish price areas.
* The average price stability was good in 2009, but spikes with bery high and very low spot prices have occurred.
* The number of hours with extreme spot prices is increasing, particularly in Germany.
- 71 hours with negative spot prices have been observed in Germany in 2009.
* Nord Pool allowed negative spot prices in Denmark from October 2009. In December 9 hours with negative spot prices in west Denmark have been observed.
* Periods with price spikes have been observed for east Denmark, particularly during the autumn of 2009.
- A main reason was limitations on the interconnection with Sweden (Øresund).
- After pressure from EU the Swedish congestion policy is being revised.
- Regardless of causes the Nordic electricity transmission system has been insufficient for a reasonable market function in east Denmark in 2009.

Opdateret d. 25.3.2010